●《丧钟为谁而鸣》读后感:一九三六年初秋到一九三九年春的西班牙内战早已成为历史陈迹，今天已不大为人们所提及。然而它实际上是第二次世界大战欧洲战线的序幕，是全世界进步力量和德意法西斯政权之间的第一次较量。由于种种复杂的历史原因，进步力量在这场斗争中失败了。以文学形式来反映这一页历史的作品为数不多，而今天尚被人推崇、文学阅读的恐怕就只有这一部《丧钟为谁而鸣》了。 这是海明威篇幅最大的一部小说，但全书情节局限于三天之内（一九三七年五月底一个星期六的下午到星期二上午），写得紧凑非凡。那时候，由于三月中政府军在首都东北瓜达拉哈拉城附近大败意大利侵略军，首都已转危为安。戈尔兹将军这时正准备在首都西北向瓜达拉马山区叛军山上防线发动进攻，为了切断敌人的增援路线，派美国志愿人员罗伯特·乔丹到敌后深山中和游击队接上关系，等战斗一打响，炸毁一座铁桥。本书即从老向导安塞尔莫带乔丹到桥头哨所侦察写起，接着两人就向游击队的营地进发。老人唤来了小组头头巴勃罗，乔丹和他立刻进行了交锋，矛盾就一步步展开了。巴勃罗当年原是马贩子，给部队和斗牛场供应马匹，后来在斗牛场做帮手时结识了和斗牛士菲尼托同居的比拉尔，菲尼托被牛挑伤死去后，她跟巴勃罗待在一起。革命爆发时，巴勃罗率众在家乡小镇包围了民防晕的兵营，逮捕了所有的法西斯分子，把他们都处死了。三天后，遭到反动军队的反攻倒算，撤至深山中打游击，一年来，袭击了几次敌人的据点，炸了一次火车，弄到了几匹马，开始酗酒，意气消沉，只求能在这山区混下去。他得悉了乔丹的来意，当场提出他所谓的狐狸的原则：要在一个地区待得下去，就只能到别的地区去活动，不然会被敌人赶走。比拉尔是个直爽热情的妇人，和几个苦出身的斗牛士生活过来，多少尝到了些人间的欢乐，因巴勃罗当初富有男人气概而倾心于他，但如今年近半百，看他堕落成个鼠目寸光的酒鬼和胆小鬼，心里非常懊恼，和那些苦大仇深的游击战士一样，正苦于无法为他们所热爱的共和国作出贡献。在这节骨眼上，共和国派来了爆破手。当晚大家聚集在山洞里，比拉尔带头反对巴勃罗，赞成炸桥，大家一致表态支持她，她豁出来说：“这儿我作主。”在这剑拔弩张的关头，乔丹不由得伸手按在手枪上，巴勃罗屈服了，但后来出尔反尔，处处只从他个人的安危出发，乔丹不得不在比拉尔和大家的帮助下，克服了他的破坏活动以及敌机敌骑兵的干扰所带来的困难，于星期二早晨及时完成了炸桥任务，但不幸以身殉职。 海明威发挥他独特的叙事艺术，以细致入微的动作描写及丰富多彩的对白，紧紧环绕着罗伯特·乔丹的行动，一气呵成地把这故事讲到底，同时插入了大段大段的内心独白及回忆，使这个主人公的形象非常丰满……
●英国诗人约翰·多恩（１５７２－１６３１）有一首诗提到丧钟，颇有名，大意是：没有人是一座孤岛，／可以自全。／每个人都是大陆的一片，／整体的一部分。／如果海水冲掉一块，／欧洲就减小，／如同一个海岬失掉一角，／如同你的朋友或者你自己的领地失掉一块：／任何人的死亡都是我的损失，／因为我是人类的一员，／因此／不要问丧钟为谁而鸣，／它就为你而鸣。有人采旧式译法翻译本诗，云：“人非孤岛孑然立，都与神州合而一。土随水去地基小，山平宅没大陆低。人若亡故我亦少，我与人人共一体。若闻丧钟何须问，为人也是为你击。”这首诗虽然简短，但含义深刻，表达了一种悲天悯人、推己及人的人生态度。海明威喜爱这首诗，把它放在自己一部小说的正文之前标明主题，小说也用诗中的一句话作为书名：丧钟为谁而鸣（Ｆｏｒ ｗｈｏｍ ｔｈｅ ｂｅｌｌｓ ｔｏｌｌｓ）。小说的背景是西班牙内战，当时美国志愿者罗伯特·乔丹奉命去炸毁一座桥，书中描写了三天中发生的故事。《丧钟为谁而鸣》是海明威写得最长的小说。数月前，偶然在中央电视台１０套《探索·发现》栏目看到纪实片《丧钟为谁而鸣》，该片根据梅汝璈１９４６年远东国际军事法庭审判的日记制作，使用大量影像资料，拍得相当成功。几年前我读过梅汝璈《远东国际军事法庭》一书，读后感觉收获很大，今日得睹记述远东国际军事法庭审判的电视片，当然倍感兴奋。不过，片名《丧钟为谁而鸣》却让我颇感惊讶，看过之后长时间如鲠在喉。我觉得用“丧钟为谁而鸣”作片名，是不恰当的。据编导者自己讲：“对于这部记录片的片名，考虑再三，最终还是采用了最初《探索·发现》主编盛振华提议的名字：《丧钟为谁而鸣》。”“之所以采用这个片名，是因为我自己本来就非常喜欢这个名字所隐含的意味。”可是，它究竟隐含了什么意味呢？这位编导却语焉不详。其实，这是错用典故的典型一例，非常碍眼。“丧钟为谁而鸣”这个短语，大概已经成为西方社会许多人熟悉的典故，甚至已经成为一句成语。它含有悲天悯人的意味。王小波在《从Ｉｎｔｅｒｎｅｔ说起》一文中，揭示说：“海明威在《钟为谁鸣》说过这个意思：所有的人是一个整体，别人的不幸就是你的不幸。所以，不要问丧钟是为谁而鸣——它就是为你而鸣。”也就是说，整个人类是个命运共同体，别人的不幸就是你自己的不幸，这就是约翰·多恩这首诗的主旨。诗写得并不晦涩，不大容易产生歧义。
●This novel traces three days in the life of Robert Jordan, an American Spanish professor who has volunteered to fight for the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. Jordan is a dynamite expert, and is ordered by General Golz, a Russian leader of the International Brigades, to bomb a bridge as part of their offensive against the Fascists. Golz is only interested in the offensive as a means of practicing his military tactics and he is cynical about its success in the hands of the Spanish peasants. Anselmo, an old guide, brings Jordan through the woods to the hideout, an abandoned cave, of the men who will help him complete his mission. The guerillas that Jordan encounters obviously do not want to be involved in the war any longer. They meet Agustin in the woods, visibly relieved to see them because he has forgotten the password to their lair. The gypsy Rafael, despite being the guard, is only interested in cracking jokes. He tells Jordan about Kashkin, the previous foreign dynamite expert who, ironically, killed himself after being wounded during their last mission, the explosion of a trai继发性癫能治好吗?n. The most cynical and despondent guerilla, however, is Pablo, their leader. Despite being a courageous man before, Pablo now wants only to return to his village to raise the horses he gained as spoils of war. Many conflicts arise between Pablo and Jordan, as the Pablo resents that a foreigner is interfering in a matter that can risk his own life and those of his band. There are also two women at the camp: Pilar, who is Pablo's wife, and Maria, a girl they rescued from the train carrying prisoners of war. Despite her cropped hair, which was shaved during her interment by the Fascists and the obvious psychological damage wrought upon her, she is beautiful. Pilar is an ugly woman, but celebrated for her bravery. Since Pablo "went bad" and lost the courage and zeal he displayed at the beginning of the war, Pilar maintains the unity of his band. Pilar is a gypsy and, upon introductions, reads Jordan's palm. The future she foretells there, but will not reveal, is grim. Pablo's cowardice soon makes him relinquish power to Pilar, his bold wife. Pablo announces that he is against blowing up the bridge, but Pilar backs Robert Jordan and the men follow her lead. After the confrontation, Rafael tells Jordan that he should have killed Pablo, and that he would have had the support of the guerillas. Jordan reasons that, unprovoked, this would be assassination. As Pablo continues to insult and cause trouble of Jordan throughout the novel, Jordan wonders if he made the right decision. After the confrontation with Pablo, during the night after the first day, Jordan makes love to Maria when she comes to his makeshift bed outside the cave. The nineteen-year-old girl, who has been raped and orphaned, has fallen quickly and madly in love with Jordan. She believes that her love will purify her from past atrocities committed to her. Jordan returns her feelings, as he has gazed upon her all day with a lump in his throat. He celebrates finding, for the first time, happiness in unity with another individual. Jordan's newfound love, however, is overshadowed by the many obstacles he must face to complete his mission. The appearance of enemy planes, for one, heighten tension at the camp because either they 昆明治疗小儿癫痫费用大概要多少are planning an attack of their own, or have gotten wind of the Loyalist offensive. So too, when Maria, Pilar and Jordan journey up the mountain to the guerilla leader El Sordo's camp, he reminds them of how dangerous the bridge mission is. He agrees to help them, but as they leave camp it begins to snow. Now, the enemy could be able to follow El Sordo's tracks to the bridge. The only person who really encourages Jordan is Anselmo, who he finds loyally waiting in his post, despite the storm, for Jordan to dismiss him. Besides being a loyal soldier who is committed to the Cause, Anselmo is distinguished as a true humanitarian. He is preoccupied not with the thought of losing his own life during the attack on the bridge, but rather fears that Jordan will order him to kill another human being. He sees the enemy not as evil Fascists, as do the others, but as poor countrymen like themselves. Pablo again makes trouble for Jordan on the second day, when he baits him about his relationship with Maria. Jordan tries to goad him into fighting, as this would be an appropriate time to kill him for the sake of the mission. Pablo refuses to be baited, however, and later resumes a cooperative mood. Jordan trusts him less than ever, and grows increasingly worrisome about the success of the mission. Thus, Jordan feels his time is limited, which is evidenced by his urgent need to make love to Maria. The next morning, Jordan is awakened by the sounds of an approaching enemy horseman. Jordan shoots the soldier, and the camp frantically scrambles to arm themselves with a machine gun that did not even come with directions. Tension mounts as Fascist troops pass by the camp. Jordan acts as the example of level-headedness for his men, as Agustin wants to kill the passing soldiers. Then, sounds come from El Sordo's. His camp is attacked and bombed, and they all are killed. Primitivo urges Jordan to help El Sordo, but Jordan knows that the bridge mission must be his priority, even over the lives of his comrades. Thus, the guerillas remain undiscovered for the time being. The fighting between El Sordo and the Fascists, led by Lieutenant Berrendo, show how neither side really wants to fight or die. Jordan sen北京市癫痫病医院排名ds a young guerilla, to General Golz with news of El Sordo's defeat and a request that the offensive be cancelled. The last night before the attack is very eventful. Maria is inflicted by pain, so the couple discusses their future and their luck in finding each other. Jordan, however, thinks that being unable to make love is a bad omen. Indeed, his presentiment comes true when Pilar wakes him with the news that Pablo, ever treacherous, has fled with some dynamite. Jordan is worried now that his plan won't work. Jordan does not have enough men and Pablo stole the equipment he needed to blow the bridge correctly. It is highly unlikely that the attack will be postponed, even if Andres does deliver the message to General Golz. Pablo returns that morning accompanied by five extra men and their horses, claiming that he is not a coward after all and will help blow the bridge. The apathy and inefficiency of the Loyalist army stalls Andres, and the message does not reach General Golz in time. The bridge bombing must proceed. At the bridge, Jordan orders Anselmo to kill the sentry, which he tearfully accomplishes. Then they dynamite the bridge, and Anselmo is killed by a falling rock. In the ensuing fighting, the only guerillas who survive are Pablo, Pilar, Maria, Primitivo and Agustin . Jordan is hit by a shell as they escape on horseback and is unable to escape. He tells Maria that they will always be one person, and refuses to be shot out of mercy. His comrades give him a machine gun so that he can defend himself from the approaching enemy. Jordan fights pain and suicidal thoughts with the hope that he can buy time for the fleeing guerillas. The novel closes here, as Jordan awaits his certain death on the pine-covered ground he appeared on in the first scene.
●《丧钟为谁而鸣》是海明威流传最广的长篇小说之一，凭借其深沉的人道主义力量感动了一代又一代人。 内容简介 美国青年罗伯特·乔丹在大学里教授西班牙语，对西班牙有深切的感情。他志愿参加西班牙政府军，在敌后搞爆破活动。为配合反攻，他奉命和地方游击队联系，完成炸桥任务。他争取到游击队队长巴勃罗的妻子比拉尔和其他队员的拥护，孤立了已丧失斗志的巴勃罗，并按部就班地布置好各人的具体任务。在纷飞的战火中，他和比拉尔收留的被敌人糟蹋过的小姑娘玛丽亚坠入爱河，藉此抹平了玛丽亚心灵的创伤。在这三天中，罗伯特历经爱情与职责的冲突和生与死的考验，人性不断升华。在炸桥的人，自己却被炮弹炸断了大腿，独自留下阻击敌人，最终为西班牙人民献出了年轻的生命。